Volvo S40 and V40 T Press Release (15 October 1997)
THE VOLVO S40 AND V40 2.0 T WITH NEW TURBO TECHNOLOGY - BETTER, FASTER, MORE ECONOMICAL
Thanks to effective use of new turbo technology and an advanced new engine management system, the new Volvo S40 and V40 2.0 T feature not just more engine power, but also enhanced driveability and improved fuel economy.
Volvo's know-how and experience in the field of turbo technology have brought advances in the fields of conventional turbocharging and light-pressure turbos alike. For several years, light-pressure turbos have been used with very good results in both the Volvo 850 and the S70/V70 models - as well as in the Volvo 940.
The introduction of the light-pressure turbo in the S40 and V40, with the T designation, is the next logical step in this development.
Pulses for faster response
Unlike the S40 and V40 T4, whose engines have a somewhat smaller bore in order to increase the distance between the cylinders, the 2.0 T uses the standard 2-litre engine.
The light-pressure turbocharger works at about 60% of the pressure of a conventional turbo , i.e. around 0.6 bar. Together with "twin scroll" technology with twin spiral turbine inlets, this helps to make the 2.0 T the highly responsive, driveable and fuel-efficient engine that it is.
Twin scroll technology is based on the use of two exhaust ducts from each pair of cylinders. These are combined so that the pressure pulses combine to propel the turbine wheel. This means much faster energy transfer than in a single duct. In practice, it means that the response time to the throttle is cut by about half - giving a more willing engine and dependable acceleration in all situations.
The engine has the designation B4204T and develops 160 bhp (118 kW) at 5100 rpm, with a maximum torque of 230 Nm from 1800 rpm up to 4800.
With the manual gearbox, this means 0-100 km/h in 8.5 seconds and a top speed of 215 km/h. The corresponding figures with the automatic transmission are 9.0 seconds and 210 km/h.
The new EMS 2000 engine management system has substantially greater capability than earlier systems and can therefore monitor and control even more functions in the engine - faster and with greater precision.
One of the most interesting functions is VEGTC - Virtual Exhaust Gas Temperature Control. Instead of the engine being supplied with extra fuel when driving under high engine load, VEGTC monitors the exhaust temperature carefully and can adjust things such as the charge-air pressure in order to keep the temperature at exactly the right level. This is a very economical system because it makes sure that the petrol is used to drive the car instead of cooling the engine.
EMS 2000 also employs climate compensation, allowing the engine to yield its 160 bhp and 230 Nm regardless of the weather conditions. Here too, the system actively intervenes to adjust the charge-air pressure.
The Volvo S40 and V40 2.0 T are available either with a five-speed manual gearbox or an electronic four-speed automatic transmission with three selectable driving modes. In conjunction with the introduction of the 2.0 T an automatic transmission is also introduced for the high-performance S40 and V40 T4 models. The automatic transmission has been strengthened in order to handle the higher torque in the S40 and V40 T4. To date, this model has only been available with the manual gearbox.
Upgraded chassis for greater comfort combined with more dynamic driving
The chassis and driveability upgrades that come with the development of the S40 and V40 T4, and which all models will benefit from, are in evidence in the S40 and V40 2.0 T, of course.
The powerful ABS brake system with EBD (Electronic Brake Distribution), bigger brake discs and more powerful servo means shorter braking distances with significantly less pedal pressure, without sacrificing directional stability and geometry.
Together with the new front end and improved geometry, as well as rear-end improvements, the car features outstandingly convincing and consistent performance even in difficult situations.
Autumn debut in autumn colour
Like its turbocharged sisters, the 2.0 T has the power where you feel it rather then where you see it. The exterior differences are few. The oval tailpipe, like the 2.0 T badge, gives a hint of the character. Autumn Gold is the new introductory colour. The customer can choose and combine chassis setting, wheels, interior colour scheme and materials as he or she wishes, from the long list of options.
The Volvo S40 and V40 2.0 T will be available at Volvo dealers from the late autumn of 1997.
MORE POWER, LESS FUEL
Forced induction means more power and higher torque, but also improved driveability and better fuel economy if it is appropriately designed. The Volvo S40 and V40 2.0 T are not racing cars. They use the turbo to increase the torque and reduce the fuel consumption. The performance is just part of the package.
The secrets behind the solution are called twin scroll technology and VEGTC - Virtual Exhaust Gas Temperature Control.
Twin-scroll technology works best on a four-cylinder engine, which is why Volvo's engineers chose it for the 2.0 T. By using double exhaust ducts - one for cylinders 1 and 4, and one for 2 and 3 - it is possible to use the acoustic energy in the exhaust pulses and transfer them to the turbine quickly and efficiently.
This means that the response time to the throttle is significantly reduced - about 50 per cent compared with that of a conventional turbo. The charge pressure is 0.6 bar, compared with 0.9 for a conventional turbo, with the result that acceleration is smoother, with more even power - much like a six-cylinder engine.
The turbocharging is most noticeable in the torque. The maximum torque - 230 Nm - is available at only 1800 rpm, and follows the engine speed up to 4800 rpm. This means that the engine yields its maximum torque in the engine speed range in which most normal driving takes place.
Fuel is for driving, not for cooling
The increased torque also includes optimum use of the fuel. Thanks to the new, active EMS 2000 engine management system, a greater number of functions can be monitored and controlled than before. This is done with greater speed and precision than earlier systems, moreover.
The innovation that contributes most to the performance of the 2.0 T, however, is VEGTC - an exhaust temperature monitoring system that works actively via virtual simulation.
By collecting all the information from the other sensors, VEGTC calculates the exhaust temperature and adjusts the charge-air pressure if necessary so that the temperature is in balance with the current conditions.
It is at times like this - accelerating or sustained motorway driving, for example - that engines usually correct the exhaust temperature by using more petrol for cooling. In the 2.0 T, the petrol is used to power the car. Instead of increasing the petrol consumption, VEGTC intervenes and adjusts the charge-air pressure in line with precise temperature measurements. This means that VEGTC saves petrol, particularly in demanding conditions.
The 2.0 T with EMS 2000 is therefore very fuel efficient, generates low emission levels and has lower fuel consumption as a result of the complete combustion process and the subsequent exhaust temperature monitoring and adjustment of charge-air pressure.
In figures, according to the EU 93/116 norm, the fuel consumption of the 2.0 T is:
Manual: 8.9 lit/100 km
Automatic: 9.9 lit/100 km
Everyone who has driven fast on an early, damp autumn morning knows how smoothly the engine runs. On a hot summer day at high altitude, it can be quite the opposite. However, with climate compensation, the ambient conditions no longer matter so much. The engine develops its 160 bhp and 230 Nm regardless of whether it is cold or warm, regardless of how thin the air may be. EMS 2000 regulates the charge-air pressure and makes sure that the engine performance is unimpaired.
The Volvo S40 and V40 2.0 T represent a strong addition to the model range - an efficient and safe combination of performance and environmental concern. 2.0 T means more power, less petrol.
SAFETY GOES WITHOUT SAYING
Safety goes without saying in all Volvo cars. Both crash safety and dynamic safety. If an accident is inevitable, the car must protect its occupants in the best possible way, regardless of the type of accident. This is the basic tenet upon which all Volvo cars are developed.
Safety is all the more important in high-performance cars, perhaps. The car must be so safe and reliable that accidents can be avoided as much as possible.
The S40 and V40 feature a very rigid body. This contributes to the good road holding and provides good protection in an impact. A rigid car reacts directly and correctly to signals from the driver, such as steering wheel movements and braking. The result is safe, consistent conduct.
The S40 and V40 have set a new standard for safety in the compact class. Their safety systems have been integrated in the basic design of the cars, and safety solutions are incorporated that have hitherto been reserved for cars in quite different market segments.
Crash tests reflect reality
The confirmation of a car's safety level is only obtained after a time - on the basis of what happens in reality. At the same time, correctly designed crash tests are essential, and can also give a good indication of what will happen in reality.
A series of crash tests conducted in 1997 by the Department of Transport in the UK, in collaboration with the Swedish Roads Administration (EURO-NCAP), included the Volvo S40.
The cars were subjected to offset collisions at 64 km/h, side impacts at 54 km/h and a further test of how the car behaved in accidents with pedestrians. The Volvo S40 was rated highest in both the offset and the side impact tests - well ahead of the competitors.
This is only one test, however. It can be compared with winning just one of the events in a decathlon. Volvo's goal has always been to design cars that are as safe as possible in real accident situation. Independent crash tests do, however, provide confirmation of Volvo's ambition to be the leader in safety, whatever the market segment.
Belts and bags
The Volvo S40 and V40 2.0 T combine a very strong and rigid basic structure, which effectively absorbs and dissipates crash energy, with a highly effective safety system. The belts, for example have automatic adjustment of the shoulder strap for the best geometry, and are equipped with tensioners and force limiters.
The belt straps are, moreover, made of a very soft fabric that has been optimised for use together with the airbags. The two systems are, in other words, developed in harmony with one another, not separately.
The S40 and V40 also has depowered airbags - they inflate at about 80% of the pressure of a standard airbag, making them somewhat less "aggressive".
Side impact protection
Volvo is constantly working on protection systems for occupants in side impacts. This is clearly reflected in the products, whose ability to withstand and counteract the effects of a side impact are well documented.
The S40 and V40 have a similar type of SIPS side impact protection system as the Volvo S70 and V70, with an effective combination of beams, tubular members and energy-absorbing structures and materials.
The S40 and V40 were, moreover, the first cars in the mid-segment to be fitted with side-impact airbags when they were presented in 1995. Volvo's SIPS bag is fitted in the outer edge of the front-seat backrest, so that it is always in the best position to provide protection, whatever the seat position. It is triggered via a mechanical sensor and ignition system.
Together with the side impact protection system, the SIPS bag reduces the risk of serious injury in a side-on crash by 40 per cent.
For Volvo, the safety concept as a whole also encompasses another important area: personal security - being able to feel safe and secure from theft and attack.
The Volvo S40 and V40 2.0 T are fitted with an electronic immobiliser, which makes it practically impossible for a thief to start the car - even if he has broken into it. The immobiliser blocks the fuel, ignition and starter motor functions.
Even breaking into the car presents considerable difficult, however, since the door locks are very difficult to pick.
The effective alarm, with remote controlled activation and disactivation, also acts as a deterrent.
Safe to drive, safe to ride in, and above all fun to travel in. The S40 and V40 with light-pressure turbo are an attractive addition to the range, just above the conventional 2-litre models, for those who are not ready to go all the way to the high-performance T4. The freedom of choice is there. The choice itself is up to the customer.