Volvo S40 and V40 T4 Press Release (14 August 1997)
New addition to the family
The Volvo S40 and V40 T4 are the result of intelligent industrial development and effective product development.
The further development of both the existing product and production techniques are included within the framework of the production joint venture between Volvo and Mitsubishi. The fact that Volvo has been building 4- and 5-door cars with different engines alongside Mitsubishi's cars from the very start is excellent proof of these flexible, intelligent systems.
When Volvo Cars introduces a new car, it is always a model with a relatively high specification. The model programme is then extended in both directions to include less exclusive versions and performance models. The Volvo 850 clearly illustrates this procedure and the success of these models demonstrates that this is the correct approach.
Modular engine family
Initially, the Volvo S40 and V40 were presented with two normally-aspirated engine alternatives with displacements of 1.8 litres (B4184S at 115 bhp) and 2 litres (B4204S at 140 bhp). Both of them are four-cylinder versions of the five- and six-cylinder Volvo engines which combine to create the N modular engine family. The same basic design is used, with an oil sump, lower crankcase, engine block and cylinder head, as well as a camshaft bearing housing and two or four valves, made entirely of aluminium.
In 1996, two new engine versions were added, a 1.6-litre petrol engine (B4164S at 105 bhp), for certain markets where an engine of this size had been specially requested, and a 1.9-litre turbodiesel (D4192T at 90 bhp), for the same reasons. The last of these is not an N engine, however.
The T4 version with the B4194T engine with an output of 200 bhp is now being added to the S40 and V40 model range. So, after being on the market for just over a year, the S40 and V40 models already constitute a family with five different members. With more to come...
Power and Torque for practical use and driving pleasure
Power and torque. Dry physical terms whose practical ability and result depend on the packaging. In sufficient quantities and utilised correctly, these two characteristics make movement and transport an unadulterated pleasure. The Volvo S40 and V40 T4 are an excellent example of the way theory has been turned into exciting reality. Practical use and pleasure unite to produce pure driving enjoyment.
For many years now, Volvo Cars has had a firmly-established position when it comes to the effective utilisation of turbocharging technology. It is now almost 20 years since the first turbocharged Volvo model made its appearance on the market and many models have been presented since then. Every time, they have featured a clear-cut improvement in technology, even more effective management systems, improved components and, in many respects, a more advantageous end result.
A small engine can develop the same power at high engine speeds as a large one develops at low engine speeds, with an identical volume of gas in the same time period. On the other hand, there is no escaping from the fact that the smaller engine has poorer torque than the large one, as the volume of gas in the combustion chamber can never be the same. These facts are the basic reason for increasing the capacity of the car using supercharging.
By supplying the smaller engine with more intake air under pressure, both power and torque can be increased to levels on a par with those of engines which are far larger in terms of volume. A supercharged four cylinder engine therefore offers the same performance as a large six-cylinder, a supercharged six-cylinder the same performance as a large V8 and so on.
This is illustrated most forcibly by the fact that the four-cylinder Volvo S40 and V40 T4 produce much the same output and torque from a displacement of 1,855 cc with turbocharging as the Volvo S90's 3-litre, six-cylinder engine. The S90's engine is not exactly lacking in power, for that matter.
Perhaps the most ingenious point is that supercharging, and the subsequent increase in output and torque, using an exhaust turbocharger costs nothing whatsoever. The exhaust gases which power the turbine wheel in the compressor are there in any case.
The Volvo S40 and V40 T are fine exponents of the effective application of modern turbo technology. This technology is rapidly advancing, the systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated and this is illustrated very effectively by the fact that the Volvo S40 and V40 T4 produce 200 bhp and maximum torque of 300 Nm from a four-cylinder engine with a displacement of 1,855 cc at engine speeds as low as 2,400 rpm. Compare these figures with the Volvo 850 T5 which, when it was introduced in 1993, developed 225 bhp and maximum torque of 300 Nm at 2,000 rpm from its five-cylinder, 2.3-litre engine. The torque per litre is therefore 162 Nm/litre in the case of the T4, compared with 130 Nm/litre for the T5. And it is the torque you feel when you accelerate...
Thirty-five years ago, 200 bhp and, first and foremost, 300 Nm were highly respectable figures for a 2-litre sports racer. Nowadays, a family car packed with driving pleasure, with an engine smaller than 2 litres, offers corresponding performance.
The turbocharger is compact and has the same size turbine wheel and compressor as the S70/V70 T5, with a maximum pressure of 1.9 bar. Components nowadays are becoming increasingly efficient and, as a result, what is known as turbo lag the momentary delay when the driver accelerates sharply has been eliminated. The relatively small turbine wheel starts rotating at lightning speed and the boost air in the compressor is forced into the engine which responds immediately to the throttle.
The management system is a member of the very latest generation, EMS 2000. Thanks to this sophisticated management system, performance is independent of the ambient conditions, such as changes in air pressure and temperature, which can otherwise influence the power of an engine.
Initially, the S40 and V40 T4 will only be equipped with a manual gearbox. This gearbox, the M56, is the same as the one in the Volvo S70 and V70 models. A five-speed with wire operation for smooth, precise movements and synchronised reverse gear. Final gear has a ratio of 4.25:1.
The term driving pleasure is largely a question of the way engine power can be transformed into practical use and of the car behaving in a safe and civilised manner in every situation. The driver's intentions result in safe manoeuvres. This is achieved by a well-balanced combination of first-class components whose individual characteristics and interaction produce the best possible results in every situation.
The Volvo S40 and V40 are available with three different chassis settings, all of which have been optimised for different target groups. In the case of the S40 and V40 T4, the standard version of the so-called dynamic chassis has been used; it offers a wonderful combination of sportiness and comfort. The so-called sports chassis, which is even stiffer and 20 mm lower, is available as an option.
The well-balanced wheel suspension features spring struts with lower wishbones and anti-roll bar at the front, plus a superb independent rear axle of the multilink type. The shock absorbers and coil springs, as well as the anti-roll bar, are stiffer than those in the other chassis settings in order to accommodate the extra power from the engine as effectively as possible; less roll, shorter spring travel, minimal changes in wheel angles.
The tyres are 16-inch 205/50ZR on aluminium wheels. A choice which, in addition to providing first-class road grip, also provides a low noise level. Inside the slotted aluminium wheels, there is an extremely powerfully-dimensioned ABS brake system, also a member of the latest generation. Large discs, ventilated and with a diameter of 281 mm at the front, plus a large brake booster, create a tangible feeling of safety as a result of their ability to make the car ˛cling to the road˛ very effectively.
This highly-developed brake system reduces the braking distance compared with previous versions and does so with less pedal travel and reduced pedal pressure at the same time.
The electronic braking power distribution system, EBD, enables the capacity of the brake system to be utilised to the full at all times, as EBD checks and balances the braking power to ensure that the car always maintains full course stability and braking ability.
Many of the details in the rack and pinion steering system with power assistance have been improved to enable the servo to respond more effectively and precisely to the steering forces or, to put it another way, to the driver's intentions and impulses. With increased caster angle (the difference in angle at the front and rear from the vertical line between the upper and lower wheel attachments), this results in improved stability. The caster angle affects the ability of the wheel to straighten following steering manoeuvres.
The leather steering wheel underlines the sporty, powerful aspects of the T4's design and only requires 3.1 turns lock to lock. The car then has a turning circle of 10.6 metres.
Another of the reasons for the civilised behaviour of the S40 and V40 T4 in every situation is DSA Dynamic Stability Assistance. DSA is a system for controlling and counteracting wheel spin which works according to a principle patented by Volvo, namely that of regulating the fuel supply.
Unlike many other traction control systems, DSA works throughout the speed range, from starting to top speed. DSA permits optimal acceleration on all surfaces, even slippery ones like gravel and snow, with no loss of road grip and with complete course stability and steering ability.
DSA works very quickly so as not to influence the dynamic characteristics of the car and the safety. This is a valuable complement to the powerful output and torque resources of the T4 and helps to make the model an effective and harmonious overall experience. In short, the DSA system works as follows.
If one of the driving wheels begins to rotate more rapidly than the rear wheels, DSA tells the engine management system to reduce the fuel supply by precisely the amount that will enable the wheel to return to the correct rotational speed. This operation takes place at lightning speed, within the space of 15-20 thousandths of a second, or a distance of about half a metre at a speed of 90 km/h.
This monitoring check is made continuously and the manoeuvre is repeated over and over again as long as conditions dictate. A flashing lamp on the dashboard tells the driver that the system has been activated and, in the same way, the system also alerts the driver about aquaplaning.
The momentary reductions in fuel supply have no effect on the driving and could never have a negative effect in an acceleration situation. Volvo's rigorous dynamic safety requirements have thus contributed to the superb function of the system.
An exciting compact-class car packed with driving pleasure and with the integral power and dynamic characteristics to match. The Volvo S40 and V40 T4 are a combination of practical driving and pleasure; practical enough to function in demanding everyday driving, enjoyable and entertaining enough to be the perfect car for recreation purposes. A wise theory that also functions well in practice.
This is Volvo's approach to driving pleasure and the S40 and V40 are two Volvo cars that guarantee its realisation.
A high level of dynamic safety is a natural part of every Volvo car and it is particularly important in cars with high performance. The car itself should behave safely and reliably to avoid potential accidents whenever possible. Should an accident nonetheless occur, the car must protect its occupants in the best possible way, regardless of the type of accident. This is the basic concept upon which the Volvo S40 and V40 have been developed. And the performance model, the T4, is no exception.
The S40 and V40 have a very rigid body which helps to produce the fine road performance and the top-class collision protection. A torsionally-stiff car reacts directly and correctly to impulses from the driver, such as movements of the steering wheel and braking.
When the Volvo S40 and V40 were introduced in the autumn of 1995, they set a new standard for safety in the compact class. This statement is perhaps illustrated most effectively by the fact that the safety systems in these cars were designed as an integral part of the basic structure and that they contained safety systems and solutions which had previously been reserved for cars in totally different market segments.
The crash tests confirm
In a series of crash tests, carried out by the British Department of Transport together with the Swedish National Road Administration (EURO NCAP), the Volvo S40 has been one of the middle class cars on test.
The cars have been subjected to offset crash at a speed of 64 kph, a side impact crash from a speed of 54 kph and a test in order to evaluate the behaviour in pedestrian accidents. The S40 received the best rating in both the offset and the side impact crash tests and none of the competiotors scored as high as the S40.
Volvo's ambition has always been to design the cars to be as safe as possible in real life accidents. However, various independent tests like this one confirm Volvo's ambition to be in the top when it comes to safety irrespective of market segment.
The S40 and V40 were designed to comply with the same rigorous requirements as the Volvo 850 a car which has received an unparalleled number of international awards for safety.
In spite of their more compact exterior, and thereby reduced space in the crumple zones, the Volvo S40 and V40 comply with the same high standard when it comes to protecting their occupants. Not least as a result of the optimal interaction between the different safety systems, thanks to total integration from the start of the design process.
During the development process, a great deal of attention focused on enabling these cars to resist the collision forces generated first and foremost in the three most common types of accident:
•Frontal including offset
Frontal and offset
The Volvo S40 and V40 combine an extremely strong and stiff basic structure, which effectively absorbs frontal-collision energy, in combination with a highly-effective belt system. The front belts automatically adjust the height of the shoulder strap to produce the best geometry and they are also equipped with pretensioners in combination with load limiters.
The belt straps are also made from a specially soft fabric which has been optimised to interact with the airbag function. To put it another way, the two systems have been developed together, in combination and harmony, not separately.
In offset crashes, the powerful basic structure with its robust chassis components, in unison with the engine installation and bumpers, also protects the occupants. Even the doors are integrated in the protective system.
All the components support one another and interact to absorb and dissipate as much of the collision energy as possible, thereby reducing the risk to the occupants.
To prevent the front wheels penetrating the passenger compartment in offset collisions, the front side members sweep out at the rear to force the front wheels out, rather than giving them an opportunity to force their way into the car and encroach on foot space.
The work Volvo has been doing to protect car occupants in side impacts has been a matter of top priority for many years. This is clearly reflected in the company's products, whose ability to alleviate the effects of a side impact is well documented. The SIPS side impact protection system in the S40 and V40 is similar to the one in the Volvo S70 and V70; an effective combination of members, tubular elements and energy-absorbing structures and materials.
In addition, the S40 and V40 were the first cars in the compact class to be equipped with side airbags (SIPS bags) when they were presented in 1995.
Volvo's SIPS bags are located on the outer side of the front-seat backrests and are therefore always in the best protective position, regardless of seat adjustments. They are activated by a mechanical sensor and inflation system.
In combination with the side impact protection system, the SIPS bag reduces the risk of being seriously injured in a side impact by 40 per cent.
Safe from the rear, too
The active protection from a rear impact is provided by the eye-level brake light with LEDs. It is both clearly visible and is activated more rapidly than a conventional brake light with a bulb. As a result, road users behind the car are given an earlier warning.
The rear impact protection system comprises both structural strength and powerful bumpers. The spare wheel, which lies flat under the floor of the luggage compartment, also plays a role as an energy-absorbing agent in a rear impact.
Seeing and being seen
Being seen and seeing well during the night in the light of other car headlights is vitally important. Being able to see the road ahead from as far away as possible could be the decisive difference in a difficult situation.
For this reason, the Volvo S40 and V40 T4 are equipped with what are known as double free-form headlights, for both full and dipped beam.
When full beam is turned on, dipped beam remains on, producing an extremely powerful beam and significantly increasing the driver's field of vision ahead and to the side.
These free-form headlights have transparent glass, as they are designed in such a way that it is the reflector and not the actual glass which shapes the beam. This has been calculated with precision and has been optimised using advanced computer technology. The size and shape of the headlight aperture is consequently unimportant.
The clean lines of the free-form headlights give the front of the car an extremely characteristic appearance.
As Volvo sees it, the concept of personal safety is also part of safety as a whole. The importance of feeling safe and secure from prying fingers.
The Volvo S40 and V40 T4 are equipped with what is known as an immobiliser, which makes it virtually impossible for a car thief to start the car, even if he manages to break in. The immobiliser blocks the fuel, ignition and alternator function.
Breaking into the car is also extremely difficult as the door locks are hard to force open. An effective alarm, with remote-control activation and deactivation, is another deterrent for potential thieves.
Choosing a Volvo means being aware and appreciating both performance and inspired car driving, as well as a high level of safety when it is needed. This combination is difficult but not impossible, as Volvo has demonstrated time and time again.
The Volvo S40 and V40 T4 a safe, performance-oriented alternative.
For Volvo's turbocharged T models, truly dynamic characteristics are more important than equipment to boost speed. The differences in design compared with the models with normally-aspirated engines are relatively modest. The Volvo S40 and V40 T4 definitely belong to the category of cars that should be driven and driven properly to demonstrate their true capacity. Real power and first-class behaviour on the road have been given priority over cosmetic features.
The features that primarily distinguish the T4 from its normally-aspirated sister models are the wide 16" wheels with their powerful rims, double free-form headlights and the large oval exhaust.
By this time, the language of design is well known, not least through the S70, V70 and C70. Powerful joint design features create the family ties and accentuate the visual identity. Unmistakably Volvo.
The upright grille, the V of the bonnet, the convex line under the windows which runs along the whole of the side of the car and the wide shoulder which made a comeback on the S40 and V40 they are all typical Volvo characteristics and reflect the origins of the car. Timeless, yet perfectly in keeping with the times.
Larger, wider wheels
The standard slotted aluminium wheels have been designed with power and strength in mind and help to create the visual image that the T4 ēsitsē stably on its wheels. An important criterion if a car is to demonstrate its inherent strength in a discreet yet obvious manner. The wheels are both higher and wider than those on the normally-aspirated models.
A closer inspection of the S40 and V40 T4 also reveals that the model has narrow, black wing extenders front and rear (the normally-aspirated models depending on choice of tyres). Both the front and rear mudguards are integrated in the rear edges of the wing extenders.
The smooth, flat surfaces on the S40 and V40 produce superb aerodynamic properties and the rear spoiler on the V40 T4 is therefore designed for high-speed stability.
Two new pearl colours are being introduced for the S40 and V40 T4 Summer Green and Autumn Gold. Needless to say, they are both waterborne.
The S40 and V40 were the first exponents of Volvo's new exterior language of design and the same thing can also be said of the interior. Simple, soft, more sculptured lines than before. Still with ergonomics and user friendliness as the guiding principle.
The upholstery alternatives are textile, textile/leather and leather in three different colour schemes. The most exciting of the upholstery alternatives is, without question, the one called Art Leather, a work of art in itself. This upholstery has been hand-painted by an artist and each car has a unique pattern.
A sporty leather steering wheel with a sculptured rim for the best possible grip and contrasting types of leather is standard in the T4. Wood inlays on the dashboard, centre console and sides of the doors in different designs for customers who specify them. A folding, adjustable armrest is fitted on the side of the driver's seat is also available as an option.
Power and performance in a class well above what is standard in the compact class, safety on a par with that offered by far larger cars and everything packaged with fashionable discretion in saloon and estate versions the Volvo S40 and V40 T4.
Configuration: In-line 4-cylinder, transverse, DOHC
Displacement: 1,855 cc
Bore: 81 mm
Stroke: 90 mm
Max. output: 200 bhp (147 kW) at 5,500 rpm
Max. torque: 300 Nm between 2,400 and 3,600 rpm
Compression ratio: 8.5:1
Number of valves: 16
Supercharging: Exhaust-driven turbo compressor
Max. boost pressure: 1.9 bar
Fuel system: EMS 2000
Configuration: 5-speed manual, synchronisation on reverse as well
Gear ratios: 1st 3.38:1,
Final gear: 4.25:1
Type: Dynamic setting (sport/comfort)
Front-wheel suspension: Independent, spring struts, lower links, anti-roll bar
Rear-wheel suspension: Independent, multilink with coil springs, anti-roll bar
Steering: Rack and pinion with power assistance
Turns of steering wheel, lock to lock: 3,1
Turning circle: 10.6 metres
Brake system: ABS. Discs all round, ventilated at the front. EBD + DSA
Brake disc diameter: 281 mm front, 260 mm rear
Wheels: Slotted aluminium, 16"
Acceleration, 0-100 km/h: 7.3 seconds
Top speed: 235 km/h
V1000 in 5th: 40 km/h
Fuel consumption, EU 93/116 mixed driving: 9.5 litres/100 km
Dimensions and weights (figures in parentheses relate to the V40)
Max. length: 4,483 mm
Max. width: 1,717 mm
Max. height: 1,411 mm (1,413 mm)
Wheelbase: 2,550 mm
Track, front: 1,454 mm
Track, rear: 1,474 mm
Ground clearance: 150 mm
Loading height: 670 mm
Kerb weight: 1,300 kg (1,320 kg)
(front/rear) 60/40 (58/42)
Max. load: 490 kg
Total weight: 1,790 kg (1,810 kg)
Max. trailer weight: 1,400 kg
Fuel tank capacity: 60 litres
Drag coefficient: 0.31 (0.32)
Front area: 2.05 m2