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Volvo S40/V40: New Car Features 1998

johna posted 2 years ago

(Reproduced from Volvo VIDA)

S40/V40 overview
S40/V40 T4

The 1998 model year will be dominated by the introduction of the high performance T4 model.
The car is equipped with the high pressure turbo-charged B4194T engine with the M65 transmission.
The engine has a maximum output of 147 kW (200 bhp). The maximum torque is 300 Nm.
The introductory color is Tropical lime.

Factory installed special components on the T4 are:
Twin headlamps.
Rear spoiler on the V40*
Sports steering wheel*
16” Aluminum rims“Gaspra” with 205/50 tires.*
Dynamic suspension.
Widened fenders.
Oval exhaust pipe.
A different combined instrument panel. Increased speedometer capacity to 260 km/h (161 mph) and a service reminder indicator (SRI).
Dual mass flywheel (the same as on the C70/S70/V70).
Self adjusting clutch. (the same as on the C70/S70/V70).
The clutch operation on the M654 transmission has a concentric slave cylinder which is located inside the clutch cover. (the same as on the C70/S70/V70).

Other modifications
The M65 transmission is controlled by wires in the same way as the C70/S70/V70. This means that gear selector pattern is the same as the S70/V70 and is different to S40/V40 models.

Gasoline engines
New smaller oil pan on all gasoline engines
The oil volume is modified 4.8 liter (1.27 gallon)(including the oil filter) for all motors.
Because of the new oil pump the center member is also modified. The jacking point is 1 cm (0.39 inch) narrower which gives more ground clearance.
New oil filter on all gasoline engines
The oil filter housing is made of plastic and is reusable. The filter is cardboard.
A new special tool is required to remove and install the filter.

Diesel engines
Modified diesel engines. The diesel engine has undergone a number of minor modifications with the removal of intermediate shaft being the largest. A new cast aluminum engine block is used.
The oil pan is cast alloy and has a new shape and better mounting against the transmission.
A new type of immobilizer with random transponder codes, applies to all engine alternatives.
A light diode (LED) is integrated into the sun sensor housing on all cars. It displays the immobilizer status or the central locking/ car alarm status.
Infocenter has a function for journey distance instead of engine oil temperature.
High catalytic converter temperature warning lamp (Japan only).

The clutch housing on the M5D transmission is modified to suit the modified diesel engine.
“Shiftlock” -/ ignition switch interlock-gear selector mechanism for automatic transmission (Japan only).
The Kick down switch is integrated into the throttle cable on all engine variants.
Extra splashguard on all engine alternatives (including diesel to prevent water penetrating the clutch housing on the driveshaft side.

New Bosch ABS 5.3 system with EBD (Electronic Brake force Distribution) function.
Larger front brake discs. All cars have 15” front brakes.

Wheels and suspension
New front caster angle.
There are three chassis settings available.
All cars have 15” spare wheels because of the 15” front brake discs.

A rear spoiler is standard on a T4 V40. The spoiler is also available as an option/accessory.
Chromed door handles which are color coordinated.
Rims. There is a new rim program available.
The front bumper (only gasoline motors). The front bumper has been reinforced to provide better protection at low speed. This bumper cannot be installed on diesel engined cars because of the front mounted condenser fan.

Cargo net on the V40. The net is located behind the rear seat to separate the cargo compartment from the passenger compartment (the same location as the steel cargo grille). The cargo net can be folded away easily.
Front power seats as standard/option.
Wood panels. Wood paneling has been extended to the center console, but not to the heater controls and glove compartment.
Color coordinated material is used. Different wood effects are available.
The sports steering wheel is available as standard/option The steering wheel is partially leather covered and gives a better grip.

Paint finishes, upholstery
For information about new or discontinued paint and upholstery finishes please refer to relevant market sales information.

Section 2
EMS 2000, B4194T

EMS=Engine Management System

The control system controls the following
Injected fuel quantity (sequential injection).
Fuel pump (FP) (start/stop).
Ignition via the ignition discharge module (IDM) (two spark plug are discharged at the same time).
Idle air control (IAC) valve.
Evaporated fuel recovery (EVAP system).
Engine cooling fan (FC) (two speeds) Cars with A/C have an additional condenser fan which is also controlled by the EMS 2000.
Starting and stopping the air conditioning (A/C) compressor.
Boost pressure.
Combined instrument panel:

*Receives engine speed (RPM) (tachometer and service reminder indicator (SRI)).
*Receives injected fuel quantity (for trip computer)
*Receives signal for malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).

Fuel trim, functions
EMS 2000 is equipped with fuel trim which regulates the following:

*Quantity of fuel injected (λ).
*Idling speed.
*Ignition point (knock).
*EVAP system

Communication with other systems
*EMS 2000 communicate with other control modules in a number of other systems.

*A new immobilizer, the same as on the C70/S70/V70.
*New communication protocol between the immobilizer and engine control module (ECM).
*Communication occurs in the two seconds after the ignition is switched on.
Communication is two way
*If the reply from the key is not the same as requested the immobilizer will send a stop message to the EMS 2000 and the engine stops after 2 seconds.

Automatic transmission
*Communication with the transmission control module (TCM) occurs via two cables. The signals are multiplex with full duplex, Up to 38 different signals pass through the system.

DSA (anti-spin system)
*Sends signals for injectors shut-off if wheelspin occurs.
The injectors can be shut off in 16 steps to limit the engines torque and wheelspin.

EMS 2000 has an integrated on-board diagnostic (OBD) system which is connected to the data link connector (DLC) via the immobilizer control module.
The malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) lights if there is an emissions related fault in the system. There are 31 diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) which light the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL).

Turbocharged engine B4194T

The engine power is 147 kW (200 bhp).
The maximum torque is 300 Nm. 230 Nm (170 lb.ft.) is accessible at rpm.
The compression ratio is 8.5:1 and the turbocharger boost pressure is 190 kPa (27.56 psi) (absolute pressure).
The engine is equipped with charge air cooler (CAC).

General characteristics
The engine is based on Volvo experience of 5 cylinder turbocharged engines which has resulted in a high performance engine.
Differences to the B4204S:

*Stronger shorter pistons to suit the turbocharger (TC) and compression ratio.
*Piston cooling nozzle with pressure valves, which cool the pistons with oil.
*Sodium cooled exhaust valves to withstand the high temperatures.
*A different type of connecting rod bearing.
*Special shaft for the turbocharger (TC).
*Slightly modified cylinder block.
*New air intake system with a silencer upstream of the air cleaner (ACL).
*New engine mountings and reinforced center member.
*120 amp generator (GEN) with modified belt.
*Water cooled oil cooler mounted on the oil pan.
*New ignition discharge modules (IDM).
*Dual mass flywheel the same as on the C70/S70/V70.

EMS 2000 engine management system.

Power147 kW (200 bhp) at 5600 rpm
Torque300 Nm (221 lb.ft.) between 2400-3800 rpm
Cylinder bore diameter81 mm (3.19 inch)
Cylinder stroke90 mm (3.54 inch)
Cylinder capacity 1855 cc
Compression ratio8.5:1
Maximum boost pressure190 kPa (27.56 psi)
Turbocharger (TC)Mitsubishi single effect
Idling speed775 rpm
Maximum rpm6500 rpm
Recommended fuelunleaded


The diesel engine has undergone a number of modifications during production. The following modifications have been introduced for the 1998 model year:

*Shims for valve clearance are withdrawn.
*The tappets are modified. Valve adjustment is not in the service program and is not necessary.
*Shims have been withdrawn.
To retain the correct valve clearance the whole tappet must be replaced if necessary. They are available in different thicknesses.
*The intermediate shaft is withdrawn.
The shaft has been withdrawn to lower the weight of the engine and to reduce the interior friction. The shaft's only function was to drive the oil pump.
Because of this modifications have been made:
**Guide pulley for belt. To retain the belt routing and belt size the pulley which drove the intermediate shaft has become a guide pulley. The pulley wheel has an internal roller bearing and retains its current position.
**Chain driven oil pump. Because the intermediate shaft is withdrawn the pump is powered by a chain directly from the crankshaft. This is carried out on the pulley side. The oil pump has been modified to accept the modification.
**The aluminum cover on the pulley has been modified.
*Aluminum oil pan
**The oil pan is a new shape and made of a new material in order to reduce weight and retain a better mounting against the transmission.
**The oil pan is equipped with a flange for direct mounting to the transmission. The U shaped bracket is therefore withdrawn ( the transmission is also modified).

Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF)

New version of the dual mass flywheel (C70/S70/V70, S40/V40).
The task of the flywheel is to improve comfort and noise levels in the car. (Resonance has been reduced by 2/3).
The flywheel is always used with the SAC (Self-Adjusting Clutch) pressure plate. This maintains pedal force at a reasonable level.

The flywheel consists of two masses, the primary and secondary masses.
Between these two masses is a damper consisting of two long half-moon shaped springs and a friction surface.

*The long springs achieve good damping without the flywheel being too heavy.
*The friction surface consists of a “ corrugated lock washer” which supplies friction instead of the grease used in the old DMF.

Models/engine variants in which the flywheel is used
S40/V40 - B4194T.

Section 3

Electrical, general

LED- central locking/alarm, immobilizer
The LED in the central locking switch is withdrawn and is replaced by an LED in the sun sensor housing.

The LED flashes whenever the car is locked. The central locking/alarm functions are otherwise the same.

Cars without remote controlled central locking have the same LED in the sun sensor. The immobilizer control module controls the LED. It flashes when the car is immobilized by the immobilizer

Cars equipped for Holland and Belgium, without remote controlled central locking and alarm, have an LED in the same place to indicate that the immobilizer is activated.

Twin headlamps
Only on T4. High and low beam are separated.

*H7 lamps are used for both.
*The headlamps have clear glass.
*All the light distribution is carried out by the reflectors and not by the lamp glass.
*When high beam is on it is supplemented by low beam.
*The turn signal lamps have the same clear glass as the T4.
*The motor for headlamp beam adjustment is modified and is located between the headlamps.

Power seats
Available as an option for driver's seat or both front seats.

The same functions as in other cars except without the memory function.

Electrical motors mounted directly on the drive mechanisms.

No adjustments are necessary for replacement, no diagnostic functions.

Combined instrument panel

New indicator lamps
A service reminder indicator (SRI) lamp has been introduced (only on cars with gasoline engines). This has the same functions as the service reminder lamp in the C70/S70/V70 but the parameters are not programmable.

A catalytic converter temperature warning lamp, has been introduced on the Japanese market.

ISO symbols have been introduced for the warning lamps, so the SRS lamp has a new symbol.

Modified lamp control
When there is insufficient charge, only the “ Generator not charging” lamp lights. It uses a new electronic circuit in the combined instrument panel (if battery voltage is still OK).

The lamp control function is also affected by these modifications.

Lamps controlled by the combined instrument panel directly switch off after 10 seconds (with ignition in position II) or directly after the engine is started.

These lamps are:

*the level in the windshield washer reservoir
*parking brake
*low fuel level
*high engine coolant temperature (ECT) (diesel only)
*battery charging

Catalytic converter (TWC) temperature, DSA, Immobilizer, SRS, ABS (including brake fluid level) lamps not affected, they are controlled by their respective control modules (they are also lit for the first 10 seconds).

Service reminder indicator (SRI) lamp is not included in the lamp control. It has its own integrated diagnostic check built into the instrument.

Other speedometer range
The turbocharged cars have an increased speedometer range, the speed goes up to 260 km/h (161 mph). The tachometer is the same.

Oil temperature read out in the infocenter is withdrawn.
The position is filled by trip mileage function. The description on the combined instrument panel is DIST instead of OIL.
To reset the km (miles) counter this position must be selected and the “ info reset” button pressed. The new function will not have a warning diode.
The increments on the kilometer scale are in 0.1 km (0.06 miles) (up to 999.9 km (620 miles)).

The red warning diode for outside temperature is replaced with a amber colored diode. If the temperature is low the problem is not serious and the lamp functions as a reminder.

Engine coolant temperature (ECT)
The combined instrument panel on turbocharged cars obtains the engine coolant temperature (ECT) from the EMS 2000.

Catalytic converter temperature check (Japan only)
The temperature is measured with a thermic sensor in the catalytic converter (turbocharged engines) or just downstream (naturally aspirated engines). The cable is thermo-electric and made of copper. The connector is used as a reference point for the control module. The point is under the driver's seat.

The lamp in the combination instrument is switched off using a small control module located in the center console. If the catalytic converter (TWC) reaches a temperature of 880 ±30°C (1616°F ±86°F) the lamp on the combined instrument panel starts to flash.
If there is any fault in the circuit the lamp shines constantly.

Speed warning
Every time the speed exceeds a preset value, a buzz is heard and the speed sinks below the preset value.

The pre set value can be programmed using the Volvo Scan Tool (ST).

The clock can be set with three different speeds depending on how long the button is held depressed. The highest speed is 10 seconds for every 0.1 seconds.

All cars have two horns.


The new immobilizer system is generally the same for the S70/V70/C70 and the S40/V40.
The major new feature is a new principle for transponder communication (control module and key) The immobilizer system contains several different types of code which it is important to recognize.

MIN code (Motor identification Number)
The MIN code is stored in the engine control module (ECM) and is the same for each engine variant control module (the low-pressure turbocharger has one code and the high-pressure turbocharger another).

VIN code (Vehicle Identification Number)
The VIN code is a code unique to each vehicle and can be read in QW 90. It is entered into the immobilizer control module at production or with the system tester. (on replacement).
When the engine is started for the first time, the VIN code is stored in engine control module (ECM).

Key code, security code
The following codes are stored in the new ignition key:
Key code. Programmed when the key is manufactured. This code is unique for each key.
Security code. The immobilizer control module programs the security code into the key (transponder) when the key is programmed.
if replacing the immobilizer control module, all keys must be replaced.
the transponder is “ married ” to the immobilizer control module and cannot be divorced from it.

Insurance companies in Belgium and the Netherlands require that, if the car does not have an alarm, it must have a flashing LED when the immobilizer is activated (car parked).

Communication between transponder and immobilizer
The transponder is activated when the key is inserted into the ignition switch and the ignition is switched on.

The control module creates a random code (challenge) and transmits this code to the transponder.

The transponder responds by transmitting an encrypted signal containing the key code, security code and the random code.

The control module determines what response to expect and compares it with the response it receives from the transponder. The control module will only allow the engine control module (ECM) to keep the engine running if the determined and received response are the same.

Communication between the engine control module (ECM) and immobilizer
When the ignition is switched on, the engine control module (ECM) creates a random code and transmits it together with the MIN code:
This random signal is encrypted and changed each time the engine is started.

The immobilizer control module decodes the signal and reads the MIN code.

In response to the signal the control module transmits back the random code together with the MIN code. As well as a negative or positive response from the transponder. (VIN code for the turbocharged X40)

The engine control module (ECM) compares the transmitted and received codes. If they correspond and the response from the transponder is positive the immobilizer is not activated.

If three attempts are made with the wrong key, the engine control module (ECM) software starts a 10 second long timeout. During this time the ignition must be on, the engine control module (ECM) will then work if it receives the correct signal. (Only applies to the S40/V40 with EMS 2000).

A PIN is required to access certain functions such as programming, erasing key codes and erasing VIN/VERLOG codes.

On board diagnostic system / Diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs)
For S40/V40:

Engine variant: turbo - 15 diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs)*
Engine variant: other - 13 diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs)*
* Most diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) are common to all variants

Section 4

SAC (Self-Adjusting Clutch)

As regards function the pressure plate and clutch driven plate are a single unit.

The pressure plate is of the diaphragm spring type. However in comparison to the traditional type the pressure plate contains a plastic adjustment ring. When there is wear the adjustment ring automatically moves a little so that the operating clutch travel remains constant.

Two new tools are required for work on the clutch. One to compress the pressure plate before removing it, and one to fix the automatic adjustment before installing it.

The clutch driven plate does not have torsion dampers and friction surfaces. Instead these functions are integrated into the dual mass flywheel.

When the clutch driven plate coating wears down, the normal working position (travel) of the pressure plate changes and clutch disengagement pressure increases.
On the self-adjusting clutch an adjuster ring responds to the wear of the clutch driven plate. When there is wear the adjustment ring automatically moves a little when the clutch is engaged, adjusting the bearing point of the diaphragm spring. This means that the operating travel of the pressure plate and therefore engagement pressure remain constant.

The following engines are available for the S/V40, B4194T and B4204T.

CSC (Concentric Slave Cylinder)

The introduction of the CSC means that the slave cylinder is integrated with the throwout bearing.

The CSC is more powerful, has better throwout bearing centering, is more reliable and is easier to install.

The sleeve/throwout bearing and slave cylinder are integrated in the CSC via an adapter. The unit is secured to the transmission cover with two screws. There is no longer a problem with the bearings and friction surface lubrication.

The hydraulic lead from the master cylinder is connected to the CSC via an adapter. There is a bleed nipple on the adapter. The adapter can be accessed through the old opening for the throwout arm.

The CSC is used on the following models
Model: S40/V40
Engine: B4194T
Transmission: M56

Section 5

Brake system

Because of the T4 higher speed, the brakes are improved in a number of areas. All these improvements have been carried out on allcars.

ABS with EBD
A new generation Bosch 5.3 ABS system has been introduced.

EBD-Electronic Brake force Distribution has been integrated into the ABS-control module. Because EBD has been introduced the pressure reduction valve on the rear brake calipers has been withdrawn. It has been replaced by a connecting block instead.

EBD warning function. If the EBD system should fail the red stop (brake) lamp lights It is dependent on the ABS circuit. This warning is necessary to alert the driver that the car can become unstable while braking if the EBD system fails.

The EBD has its own micro-processor.

When the EBD is operating the pump does not run, the pressure is controlled by valves. If the ABS is active the pump operates constantly.

The front brake discs are larger. The ventilated discs have adjusted for 15” rims.

New 15” brake caliper.

Larger master brake cylinder diameter.

Increased brake servo ratio.

More enduring brake pads material

Note! Because of the larger brake discs the spare wheel has a 15” rim. This means that a 14” wheel cannotbe used on this car (Winter tires from previous model years for example).

Section 7


From 1998 model year onwards there are 3 different suspension versions available.


*Standard on all models except T4.


*Standard on T4.
*Not optional for other models except T4.

*Lowered 15 mm (0.59 inch).
*Only available as an option.
*Available for all models.

Because of the T4's high performance the front suspension has been modified and improved. All these improvements have been carried out on all cars except turbocharged.
increased caster angle:

*Improved directional stability under acceleration.
*Improved steering wheel centering under acceleration.
*Improved steering output outside the steering center.

New lower mounting arm:

*The ball joint has been moved 7 mm (0.28 inch) forwards in order to increase the caster angle.
*the longer mounting arm has been reinforced on models without turbochargers.

The joint has been modified on all cars for the new position:

*the ball joint to the lower arm.
*ball joint to the tie rod.

The upper pivot point on the trailing arm has been moved out 32 mm (1.26 inch) to improve directional stability when driving straight forward and when cornering.

Depending on the choice of chassis there are three different types of anti-roll bar available.

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